By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)
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Additional info for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 76
YA. YAVOR necessary to change the particle energy. In these lenses the potentials on the outer electrodes are different, therefore, the potentials of spaces on the left and on the right of the lens will also be different. L > fo. For an einzel lens, relations (51)-(53) are somewhat simplified: In estimations of electron optical systems it is convenient to use the “thin”lens approximation. A lens is thin if its focal length is essentially greater than the field extent and the principal planes nearly coincide; in an einzel thin lens they coincide with its center.
One can see that each point of the object is represented not by a point, but by two short lines in image space, which are perpendicular to each other and are spaced apart along the z-axis. The measure of axial astigmatism is the radius of the smallest circle lying between these lines. It is proportional to the beam divergence angle and to a constant expressed in terms of S(z). We should stress that it is a nontrivial problem to find the relation between 6(z) and the mechanical defects. This problem has been discussed in a number of publications; the appropriate references can be found in (Grivet, 1972).
74) and (65), we can find: Thus, a mirror matrix differs from a direct matrix only in the transposition of the elements on the principal diagonal. Let us consider the matrix of a system symmetrical with respect to its center. It is evident that the second half of the system is a mirror replica of the first, and, therefore, the total matrix has identical diagonal elements: and only two of the four elements are independent. THE OPTICS OF ROUND AND MULTIPOLE ELECTROSTATIC LENSES 35 We shall also derive the commonly used formula for the optical power of a system of two lenses.
Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 76 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)