By N. A. Simmons
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Extra info for An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses
Tests of the patient's serum may be carried out in the laboratory to detect these antibodies, and so we infer, if they are present, that the patient has indeed suffered from such an infection. Antibody studies are commonly used in the diagnosis of enteric fever, brucellosis, streptococcal infections and in many virus infections. The specificity of antibodies may also be used in the opposite sense. Specific antibodies, usually prepared by repeated injections of antigen into rabbits, may be used for the final identification of micro-organisms once they have been isolated in the bacteriology laboratory.
The time usually recommended for boiling is 5-10 minutes. Another method employing relatively low temperatures is used to 'sterilise' objects such as non-boilable cystoscopes. This is sometimes k n o w n as 'pasteurisation'. This method uses water at only 70°C for 20 minutes. This treatment will kill the majority of bacterial cells, but of course will not kill spores. Using this method a calculated risk is taken: the risk that spores, if present, might cause infection in the urinary tract. Infections of the urinary tract with spore-bearing organisms are very u n c o m m o n and so the risk is generally considered to be justified.
10). In some instances phagocytosis may kill the bacterium, in others the white blood cell (phagocyte) may itself be killed. By surrounding the area of infection with plasma which often clots, and with phagocytes, the infection may be prevented from spreading. S*ï/ d e FIG. 10. Phagocytosis. T h e stages of ingestion of a bacillus by a poly-morphonuclear leucocycte arc illustrated in a-e. 40 Microbiology for Nurses of fluid away from the area of inflammation is largely by means of the lymph vessels.
An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses by N. A. Simmons