By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, greatly has been written concerning aggression; one other e-book at the related subject may appear superfluous at the present. notwithstanding, the current quantity isn't really just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it truly is, particularly, a booklet on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily similar phenomena, and it isn't attainable to debate one with no the opposite. but, now not all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. as a result, a bit of diversified issues observe to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations you may make differs based upon even if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with numerous types of aggression (e.g., riots, struggle, crimes of violence, etc.). said a bit another way, anger is right here getting used as a paradigm case for the learn of emotion, now not for the research of aggression.
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Additional info for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
As we shall see then, aggression-real or fantasied-is often absent from, or is of only secondary importance in, most angry episodes. The preoccupation of psychologists with aggression as opposed to anger stems, of course, not only from methodological necessities and available sources of data. From a practical point of view, aggression is a much more pressing problem than is anger. But anger is also of considerable practical and theoretical interest in its own right. It is one of the most frequently experienced of all emotions, one intimately connected not only with our sense of well-being but also with our sense of fairness and justice.
At the highest levels of involvement behavior becomes stereotyped and unresponsive to both situational constrains and personal needs. The dictates of the role are paramount. One of the most dramatic illustrations of a high degree of involvement in an emotional role is the case of voodoo death (Cannon, 1942). The person who has been hexed enters into the role of a dying person-and dies. Needless to say, everyday emotional roles do not place such extreme demands on the individual. Most emotional episodes proceed at rather low levels of involvement, where instrumental responses predominate, if the emotion is even expressed at all.
At very low levels of involvement, there often is a disjunction between feelings and responses, and behavior may be largely instrumental. But that does not invalidate the interpretation of such behavior as emotional. And as involvement increases, all aspects of an emotional syndromefeelings, expressive reactions, physiological changes, instrumental responses-become closely woven into a pattern dictated by the emotional role. Emotional Feelings Let us return for a moment to William James's theory of emotion.
Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion by J. R. Averill